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Archive for the ‘Care & Maintenance’ Category

Beginner’s Guide to Spa & Hot Tub Care


hot tub care

Spa and hot tub care – take a deep breath! Don’t worry, it isn’t too hard. Remember, if things get out of control, you can always drain the spa and start over!

For the new spa owner, or for someone who is new to spa maintenance, we have a few easy tips to help you care for your spa. These simple hot tub maintenance and cleaning tasks will keep your water crystal clear, sanitary and ready to use. Keep reading to learn how to maintain proper water chemistry and keep your spa equipment in top shape.


Keep Up with Water Chemistry

If you’ve read the Secret to Hot Tub Chemistry post, you already know the secret of spa care and cleaner water. In short, you need to test the water. Use these results and make small adjustments to pH, alkalinity, calcium hardness and sanitizer levels regularly. This means testing the spa water 2-4 times per week and adjusting levels as needed to keep the water balanced within the proper ranges:

Water testing is an important part of hot tub care.

Keeping a log is a good idea to track your test results and make notes on adjustments. In many cases, you’ll start to notice patterns in water chemistry, especially with pH and sanitizer levels.

Tap water is pretty good spa water in most areas. But in some areas (you know where you are), you may run into water quality issues. Soft or hard water, high alkalinity, pH imbalance, and high levels of chloramines, metals or minerals can all negatively impact water balance in your hot tub. Use a test kit to sample your tap water directly from the source or after a drain and refill. This will help you gauge the suitability of your tap water for use in the spa. Using a spa pre-filter removes metals, odors and the finest silt from your spa fill water.

Clean the Spa Filter

Clean the spa filter during regular hot tub maintenance.The spa filter is usually under the skimmer basket and can be accessed from the side of the spa, or it can be a small tank assembly that is opened up underneath the spa. You’ll need to locate it first in order to clean or replace the filter during your spa care routine. If it’s underneath the spa, there should be a closable valve that helps prevent water from rushing out when you open the filter. Loosening a large nut or just turning the filter body counter clockwise is the usual method to access the filter cartridge. Some water spillage is inevitable when opening it up. But if done carefully, this will be very little.

If your spa filter has a pressure gauge attached to it, the cartridge needs cleaned when the pressure rises 8-10 PSI higher than the freshly cleaned pressure reading, or when flow is noticeably reduced. If there’s no gauge on your filter, just clean the filter on a regular schedule. I clean my own filter cartridge every 4-8 weeks, depending on how often I use the spa. If my hot tub is being used a few times per week, I’ll clean the filter about every 4 weeks, or once a month.

Replace your spa filter every 1-2 years, again depending on usage. The general rule of thumb is to change it every 10-15 cleanings, because that’s what really breaks down a cartridge. Every time it gets cleaned, the fibers loosen up and it loses a little bit of its dirt trapping ability. Keep track of your spa filter’s age and/or cleaning cycles, because at some point soon it’s gonna be “Hasta la vista, baby!”

Clean the Spa

Clean the hot tub regularly to keep it looking nice.Speaking of regular spa care, a full cleaning of all surfaces, the waterline and plumbing should happen whenever the spa is drained, which should happen every 3-4 months. Just be sure to NOT use any household cleaning products or soaps. If want to use cleaning chemicals on your spa surfaces, try something like our Spa Cleaner spray to keep out phosphates, nitrates and other contaminants that can negatively affect water quality.

For accumulated dirt and debris, vacuum seats and floors with a small vacuum made specifically for spas and hot tubs. Most are battery powered, but there are other styles available. The Pool Blaster spa vacuum is battery operated and easy to use. There’s also the Grit Getter, a small manual cleaner that’s perfect for picking up little grains of sand and debris that gather in the corners. The more powerful spa vacs can quickly remove even large leaves from your hot tub.

Floating debris can be removed with a simple skimmer net. If you happen to leave the cover off during a windstorm and the spa is full of leaves, a skimmer net can also be used to scoop up larger leaves under the water.

Air Out the Spa Cover

Open the hot tub cover a couple times each week to allow it to dry.One of the most important things you can do to increase the longevity of your spa cover is to remove it at least twice per week. Use a spa cover lifter to completely remove it. If you don’t have a spa cover lift, gently place it off the spa. Give your cover a few hours to breathe and get away from the constant heat and moisture. If you’re not using it at the time, this is a great opportunity to add chemicals or shock the spa if needed.

Another good spa maintenance practice is cleaning and conditioning your vinyl spa cover. Especially if your spa is outside, using a spa cover cleaner can quickly remove airborne oils, dirt, tree sap and pollen. After it’s clean, use a cover conditioner to replenish the vinyl plasticizers that keep your vinyl spa cover soft, strong and looking great.

Add Fill Water

Remember to top off or refill the hot tub during regular hot tub maintenance.This spa care tip is so often forgotten. However, if the skimmer starts to suck air instead of water, it can damage the pump. The water level should be in the middle of the skimmer intake or a little higher. You don’t want it too high, and you never want to overflow the spa, so keep a close eye on the water level while filling.

Keep a garden hose nearby. If your garden hose is too far away, set up a sub-spigot by running a hose from a splitter on your current spigot, to a spigot that is mounted on a stake. Then you always have a hose right next to the spa for filling or topping off the hot tub water level.


To handle 95% of spa care and maintenance tasks, just remember these five easy tips:

  • Test and adjust your spa water balance 2-4 times per week.
  • Clean the spa filter every 4-8 weeks, and replace every 1-2 years.
  • Keep the spa clean; drain and refill every 3-4 months.
  • Air out the spa cover twice per week.
  • Add water as needed to keep the spa full.

That’s all there is to it! Hot Tub Works makes spa and hot tub maintenance easy with a full range of sanitizers, balancers, clarifiers, parts, accessories and other supplies to keep your hot tub in top shape.


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10 Reasons Why Your Spa Water is Cloudy


Cloudy Hot Tub WaterWhy is my spa water cloudy? If we’ve heard that question once, we’ve heard it a thousand times. It may be the number one water problem plaguing spa owners.

There is a lot of misinformation out there about cloudy spa water, such as “Bromine will make your spa cloudy,” or “Metals in the water cause cloudy hot tub water.” There’s also the ever-present sales pitch – if you just had this super-special-magical water treatment, all of your spa water problems will disappear! Right

While the right chemicals will help correct the underlying issue, hot tub water problems usually require a bit of diagnosing and troubleshooting first. If your spa or hot tub water is cloudy, hazy, milky or turbid, your problem is likely one of these situations below. It could also be a combination of more than one.

1. High Calcium Hardness, Total Alkalinity or pH

how to fix cloudy hot tub waterYour spa water chemical balance may be to blame. Take an accurate reading of your calcium hardness, alkalinity and pH levels. In areas where hard water is common, calcium can easily come out of solution and cloud the spa water. If your calcium hardness levels are greater than 300 ppm, use a chemical balancer to lower the pH, calcium and alkalinity levels in your spa.  This will help to keep your spa water clear and prevent scaling and cloudy hot tub water.

If your test for total alkalinity shows high levels in excess of 150 ppm, excess carbonates can come out of solution and make the spa cloudy. High TA levels will also make it hard to control your pH and keep it in range. Use pH decreaser to lower TA to around 100 ppm. If your spa pH level is outside of the range of 7.2-7.6, adjust accordingly for easier control of cloudy water.

TDS, or total dissolved solids, is not usually a concern in spas and hot tubs. But if you have not drained your spa in a very long time, you could have a very high level of dissolved solids in the water. When water reaches its saturation point, which means it can’t absorb more solids, frequent bouts of cloudy water to be expected. If your TDS reading climbs higher than 1500 ppm, it’s time to drain and refill the spa.

how to fix cloudy hot tub water

2. Low Spa Sanitizer Levels

Some people are sensitive to bromine or chlorine, and try to operate the spa with as little as possible. That may be OK if you have other sanitizers working, such as an ozonator or a mineral cartridge, and your water chemistry is balanced, particularly the pH level.

Otherwise, spas should always have a level of 2-3 ppm of bromine, or 3-5 ppm if using chlorine. When the sanitizer level drops below 1.0 ppm, foreign particles in the water run rampant, and organic contaminants grow at a faster rate than they are being destroyed.

A proper sanitizer level should destroy the particles that induce cloudy water. To give your sanitizer a boost, shock the spa water regularly. Be sure to shock the water after a several people have used the spa, or if sanitizer levels have suddenly dropped to very low levels. If a chlorinated spa shock is clouding your water, try using non-chlorine MPS shock instead.

how to fix cloudy hot tub water3. Cloudy Fill Water

Maybe the problem is not with your spa, but in your fill water. Nonetheless, balanced and sanitized spa water with proper filtration should be able to self-correct, and you’ll have clear water within a day or so. A spa clarifier can help coagulate suspended particles for easier filtration. In most cases, it may be better to use a spa pre-filter to remove particulates that cloud up spa water. Just attach it to your garden hose when adding water or refilling your spa or hot tub.

4. Air in the System

Small particles of air or tiny bubbles can make the spa water appear cloudy. If your spa has bubbles coming into the returns, but your air blower and spa ozonator are turned off, you may have an air leak on the suction side of the pump. The suction side is anything before the spa circulation pump. A loose union fitting before the pump or a loose pump drain plug can pull air into the system.

Low water level in the spa can also bring air into the spa, giving the water the appearance of being cloudy or hazy. Inspection of the pipes and equipment before the spa pump can reveal the source of the air leak, which can then be fixed with sealants or lubricants.

how to fix cloudy hot tub water

5. Spa Filter Problems

This is a common cause of cloudy spa water. A spa filter cartridge may be positioned incorrectly, allowing for water to bypass the filter cartridge. Make sure the cartridge is fully seated on both ends to force the water to go through the pleated spa filter material.

A spa filter cartridge won’t last forever, and each cleaning reduces its efficacy a little bit more. After about 15 cleanings, replace the spa filter and you’ll notice an immediate improvement in water clarity. Depending on how much the spa is used and how much is asked of the filter, you should replace the spa filter every 12-24 months.

how to fix cloudy hot tub waterSpa filter cartridges can also become gummed up with oils or minerals, drastically reducing their filtration ability. These substances can be very difficult to remove with a garden hose alone. Spraying or soaking a cartridge with spa filter cleaner before cleaning will break down greasy or crystallized deposits and restore full flow to your filter.

DE filters are more commonly used on inground spas, and if a DE filter grid develops a hole, it will allow DE filter powder to come into the spa. This will cloud the water and leave deposits of a light brown powder on the seats and floors of the spa.

6. Spa Pump Problems

There are a number of pump problems that can lead to cloudy spa water, the first being the amount of time the spa filter is running each day. You may need to increase the amount of time that the spa pump operates, to increase your daily filtering time. Running a pump only on low speed can also contribute to ineffective filtration. Run it on high for at least 2 hours every day.

Another issue could be with the spa impeller. It could be clogged full of pebbles, leaves, hair or any number of things. The vanes on a pump impeller are very small and can clog easily, which will reduce the flow volume considerably. Another possibility is that the impeller is broken. The pump turns on, but the impeller is not moving, which will reduce flow rates to zero.

If you have no flow from your spa pump, there could be an air lock, especially if you have just drained and refilled the spa. To fix an air lock, shut off the pump and loosen a union on the pump and allow air to escape, tightening it when water begins to leak. If the pump doesn’t turn on at all – well, there’s your cloudy spa water problem. There could be a tripped GFCI button, loose wires, bad contactor or relay, or another control problem.

Air leaks before the pump, as discussed above, also makes the pump less efficient by reducing the overall water volume. Water leaks after the pump are also a problem, in that your water level will soon drop below the skimmer intake, begin to take on air, lose prime and stop pumping your water through the to fix cloudy hot tub water

7. Biofilm Problems

Biofilm is a slimy bacteria that coats the inside of pipes and fittings. In extreme cases, it will cloud the water, and you may notice slimy flakes floating on the water, or have severe issues with spa foaming. Biofilm forms quickly in a spa that has sat empty and idle for some time. If you suspect a biofilm contamination, lower the pH to 7.2 and use spa shock to raise the chlorine level above 10 ppm. Follow this up with a treatment of Jet Clean to remove biofilm deposits. To prevent future buildup of biofilm in your pipes, try adding an enzyme product to your hot tub maintenance regimen.

8. Salt System Problems

Salt systems are becoming more popular with spa owners, although they are much more prevalent in swimming pools. The issue with salt systems is that it is possible to place too much reliance on them, and never check your chlorine level. Spa salt cells need occasional cleaning to maintain chlorine output.

Adding salt to your spa when needed may cloud your water temporarily, until the salt becomes fully dissolved. When adding salt, be careful not to overdose. Run the jets on high for greater agitation of the water.

9. Biguanide Problems

If you use a non-chlorine, biguanide sanitizer in your spa and have difficulty with cloudy spa water, you are not alone. This is the main complaint of using a PHMB sanitizer. You may find relief by draining and refilling the spa, then changing the spa filter, which is probably gummed up with residue. Using spa chemicals with any amount of chlorine, or using algaecides or any other non-approved chemical will not only cloud the water in a biguanide spa, it can also create some wild colors, too!

10. Soaps, Lotions, Cosmetics and Hair Products

This problem is common to just about every spa, unless you shower well before using your spa. Everything we put on our body and in our hair can end up in the spa, bringing oils, phosphates, detergents and a hundred other undesirable chemicals into the water. These can consume sanitizer, clog spa filters and make the spa water cloudy and foamy. If your spa has a high bather load or is used as a giant bath tub, you can expect issues with water clarity. Adding spa enzymes can help control greasy gunk and reduce sanitizer demand and clogging of your spa filter.cloudy spa water

Cloudy spa water is not so difficult to find and fix, but remember that you may have more than one of these issues working against you. Consider each cause of cloudy spa water carefully. If you’re dealing with cloudy water in your hot tub, it’s likely one or more of the situations above. Draining the spa regularly is one more piece of advice to prevent cloudy water. Depending on how much the spa is used, draining it every few months is a good way to keep your spa water from becoming cloudy in the first place!

Mineral Sanitizers for Hot Tubs


mineral sanitizer for hot tubMineral sanitizer systems for hot tubs have become quite popular in recent years. But the concept is nothing new. In fact, many ancient cultures used silver to sterilize their water, including the Romans, Greeks and Egyptians. Modern hot tub mineral systems are much more advanced. They come in many shapes and sizes, but all have the same end goal in mind: clean, clear water that’s easy to maintain.

Mineral systems pack a one-two punch when it comes to sanitizing your hot tub. Minerals can effectively sanitize a hot tub on their own. But in order to create a complete water care system, a low level of bromine or chlorine must be added to supplement the minerals. Both support each other in fighting water contaminants, which reduces the amount of chemicals needed to disinfect your hot tub. Bromine use decreases by up to 50%, and chlorine use can drop by as much as 75%. With fewer harsh chemicals in the water, you won’t experience itchy skin, faded swimsuits or unpleasant chemical odors.

In addition to sanitation, mineral systems work to maintain your hot tub in a few other ways. We mentioned the reduced need for sanitation chemicals like chlorine and bromine. It’s common knowledge that lower chemical levels mean less skin irritation. What we didn’t tell you is that mineral systems also condition the water for a luxurious, softer feel. After just one soak, you’ll be asking yourself why you didn’t try a mineral system sooner! Water balance is always top of mind for hot tub owners, since pH levels tend to fluctuate between uses. Another benefit of mineral sanitizers is that they keep pH balanced for a longer period of time. Balanced pH helps avoid cloudy water, leaving you with clean, clear hot tub water that truly sparkles. Customers who use a mineral sanitizer system are able to immediately see and feel a difference in their hot tub water.

There are many different ways you can use a mineral sanitizer in your hot tub. Complete floating systems are among the most popular, but mineral sticks for filter cartridges are also very common. If you’ve never used minerals before, it can be hard to choose between the different styles. Here’s a quick overview of our most popular hot tub mineral systems:

FROG @ease floating sanitizer

FROG® @ease®
Complete Mineral System with Chlorine

Hot tub maintenance is impossibly easy with the FROG @ease Floating System. Just test and re-balance the water once or twice each week, shock the spa once per month, and replace the silver SmartChlor® cartridge every 3-4 weeks. No guesswork needed – the system will flip over when the cartridge is empty. Patented SmartChlor technology keeps free chlorine levels at a constant level of 0.5-1.0 ppm. No more spooning chlorine granules into the water! SmartChlor does it all for you, using 75% less chlorine than a standard dichlor hot tub. The blue mineral cartridge lasts about 4 months, and is replaced with a new @ease kit. Each cartridge comes pre-filled, so there’s no messy measuring or dosing required. When it comes to hot tub sanitation, FROG @ease is the lowest maintenance system on the market today. For newer hot tubs with an in-line system, FROG @ease in-line cartridges are available

FROG Serene floating sanitizer

FROG® Serene™
Complete Mineral System with Bromine

If you prefer to use bromine in your hot tub, FROG Serene offers many of the same benefits as FROG @ease. FROG Serene uses up to 50% less bromine than a typical bromine spa, and maintenance is simple. Test and balance the water once or twice per week, add a weekly dose of shock, and replace the yellow bromine cartridge every 2-4 weeks when empty. The bromine cartridges have 6 settings to treat hot tubs up to 600 gallons. Minor adjustments may be needed until the water maintains an ideal bromine reading of 1.0-2.0 ppm. Cartridges come pre-filled so you never have to handle chemicals directly. The blue mineral cartridge lasts up to 4 months, and the green floating holder can be reused time and time again. FROG Serene cartridges are also available for in-line systems on newer hot tubs.

FROG Filter Mate mineral sanitizer

FROG® Filter Mate™
Supplemental Mineral System

Mineral sticks were first introduced to the hot tub industry over 20 years ago. Still today, they offer an effective way to reduce the amount of chemicals in your hot tub water. Just install one FROG Filter Mate in the core of your filter cartridge, and replace it every 4 months. That’s it! Since these systems don’t include bromine or chlorine like a complete mineral system, they do require a bit more hands-on maintenance. You’ll need to add a small amount of your favorite sanitizer to create a complete sanitation system. As with any other hot tub maintenance program, shock the water once per week, and maintain proper water balance for best results.

Mineral systems are a popular hot tub sanitation option for many reasons. Upgrading your hot tub to a mineral sanitizer system is very simple, and you’ll enjoy cleaner, clearer, softer water that’s much easier to maintain. Why not give it a try? Get back to enjoying your hot tub, and leave the stress of maintenance behind.

Spa and Hot Tub Water Color Problems


hot tub water color problemsWe’ve all been there before, when you lift the spa cover to discover a color other than clear blue. Hot tub water can be all colors of the rainbow when conditions aren’t right. Yellow, brown, green, white and every shade in between.

Today, we’ll discuss how to identify and troubleshoot colored spa water so you can restore your clear, sparkling blue spa water. It doesn’t matter what type or size of hot tub you have, even if your tub is as big as a pool. You can still use these tips to fix colored hot tub water.

After you’ve spent several months (or years!) taking care of your spa, your trained eye can tell right away when something’s not right. It’s a bit less sparkly and translucent, and a bit more dull and dirty looking. Or perhaps the water has turned one of these strange spa water colors.


green-hot-tub-waterWhen your spa has a shade of green, you may immediately think of algae. If your sanitizer has been low or your filter cartridge is dirty, it very well could be algae. Touch the sides of the spa, and if it feels slimy, you can bet you have a small algae bloom on your hands. Algae can grow even under a spa cover, in the dark, hot water. To treat a hot tub for algae, check and balance the pH and alkalinity, and add a shock treatment. After filtering out dead algae, it’s always recommended to replace the spa cartridge with a new one.

Green hot tub water can also be caused by a mineral we know as copper. It can enter the water from copper pipes carrying fill water, or it can come from natural well water. It can also come from copper heat exchangers used in gas-fired spa heaters, or it can come from using copper pool algaecide in a spa (not recommended). This is the same copper that can turn a swimmer’s hair green. The water can be clear and bright green, without slime on the surfaces. Control  copper in your hot tub water with a product like Metal Gon or CuLator packets.


yellow-hot-tub-waterYellow algae is a particularly resistant type of algae that can exist in a dark heated hot tub, even in the presence of normal bromine or chlorine levels. It seeks out small, out-of-the-way crevices, and when in full bloom, it will deposit itself in sheets across spa surfaces. Treatment for yellow algae is to use a very high level of chlorine spa shock. Balance the water first, and turn off the heater before shocking the spa. Allow the water to circulate for several hours, with the cover removed. If the level drops to zero within 24 hours, shock the spa again, until it holds the chlorine level. After this shock treatment, drain and scrub the spa, bleach wash the spa cover and replace the spa filter with a new cartridge.

Yellow hot tub water can also come from an excess of pollen in the springtime, especially if you have left the spa cover for some time. Iron oxides in well water can also impart a yellowish color to the water, especially if the spa turned yellow after shocking. If you are on a well water system, use a pre-filter to remove all minerals from your fill water. Finally, if your bromine level is extremely high, the water can take on a yellow-red color, especially in the presence of low pH. Don’t enter a spa if the bromine residual is over 5 ppm.


brown-hot-tub-waterBrown water is not the most appetizing hot tub water color. If your spa has suddenly turned brown, much like the color of tea, again you can usually find the problem to be high levels of minerals, namely iron oxide. This may occur within hours after shocking the spa or making big pH adjustments. The filter cartridge should remove some of it, but to clear it up faster, you can force it back into solution with a sequestering agent like Metal Gon.

Brown spa water also occurs from contaminated fill water. During dry, hot periods, some municipal water supplies begin scraping the bottom of the barrel, which adds a lot of particulate matter to the water supply. You can combat this by using a pre-filter on your hose when you fill the spa. This simple tool will remove even microscopic particles from your fill water.


white-hot-tub-waterMilky hot tub water, which is so cloudy that the water appears white, can come from many causes. High calcium or alkalinity, ineffective filtering or pumping, or air in the system causing micro-bubbles – all of these can make hot tub water appear white-ish. Contaminants from body lotions, cosmetics and hair products can also change the water color from clear blue to white. If your spa has cloudy water, here’s a troubleshooting blog post with 10 reasons why.

White hot tub water can also be infected with white mold, a type of bacteria that grows in small clumps and clusters. In spas that have not been maintained properly, this type of slime can be difficult to remove, but can be treated effectively with raising chlorine level to 30 ppm, running the spa for several hours and then draining. Replace the spa filter, and rinse all removable items like spa pillows, nets, baskets and thermometer in a strong bleach solution. Use a biofilm remover like Jet Clean to clean out the pipes.


pink-hot-tub-waterPink algae is a close cousin of white water mold discussed above. Not actually an algae, it’s a form of bacteria, although it displays characteristics of an algae.  Pink spa water is not a very common color for spa water, and pink algae won’t actually color the spa water pink, except in very mature colonies. Treatment for pink algae is similar to white mold above. It’s not easy to eradicate, as it is able to tuck away cells that are difficult to reach – but it can be eradicated, by hitting it hard with shock (over 30 ppm), and using a purge product to clean the lines and crevices. Be sure to replace your spa filter, and soak all spa items in a strong bleach solution before refilling the spa.

Don’t let colored hot tub water get you down! There’s always a solution…

Cloudy Hot Tub After Shocking


cloudy hot tub water


Getting cloudy water immediately after shocking your spa or hot tub is pretty common, and usually considered normal. After all, there are a lot of chemical reactions going on when you shock a spa! Clear water should return to a spa within just a few hours.

That said, when adding just ounces of a spa shock makes the water cloudy, there are probably other things going on. Here are just a few reasons you might be getting cloudy hot tub water after adding spa shock.


Swimming Pool Shock

Using pool shock will almost always make your spa or hot tub cloudy. It’s not as refined and the particles are much larger, meaning they won’t dissolve right away. Pool shock is also loaded with calcium, which can be a problem if you’re in a hard water part of the country. If you want to use chlorine shock, use Spa 56 chlorinating compound, which is specially formulated for hot tubs. The best advice for shocking a spa or hot tub is this: DON’T use pool shock. Only use spa shock for spas and hot tubs.

High pH & Alkalinity

Before you shock a spa, it’s always best to check the water’s pH and alkalinity. This is especially true if you add shock right after using the spa – few sweaty bodies into your hot tub can spike the pH and alkalinity levels up too high. When the pH and alkalinity are out of balance, strong shock treatments can knock carbonates and bicarbonates out of solution and make your spa water cloudy. Keep some spa pH decreaser on hand so you can use it to lower both pH and alkalinity.

Hard Water Hot Tub

My water comes out of the tap with a calcium hardness of about 450 ppm. This is high, but not as high as some in nearby desert areas or those drawing from a well. When your spa water is hard, that means it has a lot of dissolved calcium in it. Spas and hot tubs operate best around 200 ppm, and when there is more than that, it can come out of solution as visible scale on spa surfaces. If your spa pH is high and you also have high calcium hardness, shocking can make the spa water cloudy. To avoid this problem in hard water areas, fill your spa with water that has gone thru water softening tanks, or use a pre-filter on your garden hose to keep calcium levels low.

Lotions & Potions

If you host a get-together and there are a lot of people using your hot tub, the water may get a little funky by the end. It’s a common reaction to add spa shock once the party’s over, but then the water turns cloudy. Why? It’s because of all of the body oils, sweat, dirt, makeup, lotion, deodorant and who knows what else that has washed into your hot tub. Spa shock doesn’t do very well with oily gunk. The shock has trouble breaking it down, which can turn your hot tub cloudy after shocking. To prevent this problem, keep your spa as clean as possible and encourage everyone using the hot tub to take a quick shower – or at least be reasonably clean – before stepping in. Using a spa enzyme once a week can also help to break down the oils and organic materials at the root of this problem.

For best results, keep the spa as clean as possible, make sure calcium hardness stays around 150-200 ppm, and maintain proper pH and alkalinity levels to lower the risk of cloudy water when shocking your spa. If cloudy water continues to linger after a few hours, keep reading. We have another blog that can help you isolate and fix the cloudy water culprits hiding in your hot tub: 10 Reasons Why Your Spa Water is Cloudy.

Help! My Hot Tub Pillows Stink!


how to clean hot tub pillowsIt’s a common scenario. You open the hot tub cover and settle in for a warm, relaxing soak. Next thing you know, your senses are bombarded by the overwhelming aroma of smelly hot tub pillows…YUCK! Not relaxing at all! Lucky for you, it’s not too hard to eliminate that stealthy stench.

Why Do My Spa Pillows Stink?

Bacteria, mold and mildew thrive in warm, moist environments, making your hot tub a hot spot for the growth of these smell-inducing microorganisms. Left unchecked, they can accumulate and make your entire hot tub – not just the pillows – smell bad.

It’s easier for microorganisms to grow if the water’s pH is unbalanced and sanitizer levels aren’t high enough. Bacteria can also build up over time if the spa doesn’t get drained and cleaned properly. Failure to remove the spa cover and allow it to breathe or “gas off” regularly can also exacerbate smelly spa issues.

How Do I Clean My Spa Pillows?

Regular cleaning will not only keep your hot tub pillows smelling great, it will also keep them looking great and slow down the rate of deterioration. Here are some quick tips to clean your hot tub pillows and get rid of that stinky smell:

  1. Remove the pillows from your hot tub. Some pillows are connected by suction cups, some by screws, and some by a specialized plug or clip. Use caution and follow the manufacturer’s instructions so you don’t damage the pillow or attachment pieces.
  2. Prepare the cleaning solution. If it’s part of your regular maintenance, use a gentle hot tub cleansing product. For mild mildew, vinegar and baking soda should do the trick. For more stubborn smells or severe mold and mildew, try bleach and a mild detergent. The use of gloves and safety goggles is recommended when handling strong chemicals.
  3. Use a sponge and cleaning solution to clean the pillow. Gently scrub to make sure every bit of mold and mildew is removed. If your pillow has a cover or can be disassembled, all pieces should be thoroughly cleaned. For hard-to-reach areas, seams, indents or deep textures, use a toothbrush. Don’t scrub too hard, or you’ll damage the pillow.
  4. Rinse pillows thoroughly to remove all cleaning solution.
  5. Allow the pillows to dry completely. This will kill off any remaining bacteria, mildew or mold spores. Warm, sunny days are perfect for this! Any strong scents left over from the cleaning solution (such as vinegar or bleach) should dissipate as the pillows dry.
  6. Clean hot tub surfaces in the areas behind the pillows. Don’t forget this step! Mold and mildew love to hide and accumulate here, so it could be where the smell was originating.
  7. Reassemble the fully dried pillows. When you’re ready to use them again, put them back in the hot tub, and enjoy that freshly-cleaned spa pillow scent!

Other Maintenance Tips

Keeping a close eye on water balance, sanitizer levels and overall cleanliness will help your entire hot tub stay looking and smelling good for many years to come. If you start to notice a smell coming from the spa, don’t just mask it with aromatherapy products – those can come after the bad smell is GONE. Find the root of the problem first, and eliminate the cause. Common sources of strong odors include the pillows, biofilm buildup in the plumbing, a dirty filter, an aging spa cover or even the water itself.

For regular pillow maintenance, gently wipe or rinse away chemical residue at least once a week. This is an easy way to prolong the lifespan of the pillows. If you won’t be using the hot tub for a while and are concerned about mildew issues, simply remove the pillows, clean them thoroughly (using the steps above), and store them in a dry place until they’re needed again.

If you notice that your hot tub pillows have started deteriorating and are smelling bad more frequently, it may be time to find replacement pillows. Hot Tub Works has many different types of spa pillow replacements to fit many models of hot tubs. We might just have what you’re looking for!

Eliminating Hot Tub Scale


eliminate hot tub scaleDiscovering scale in your hot tub for the first time can be an alarming and unpleasant experience. Scale has a sandpaper texture that grows on the surface of your spa, and it can also hide in less visible places like your water heating elements and plumbing system. It is formed when there is a buildup of minerals.

You’ll want to remove the scale as soon as possible to avoid damage from happening to your hot tub. In this blog, we’ll explain how to eliminate hot tub scale from the surface of the tub and prevent it from coming back.



clean spa filter

The filtration system plays an important part of keeping your spa water clean and free of dirt, oils, and other contaminants. Clean your filter on a regular basis to maintain healthy water quality and overall water flow. Depending upon usage, plan on cleaning your spa filter every two weeks, or as often as weekly.



spa water test kit

There are three main contributors that promote scale growth in your spa: high pH levels, high alkalinity and high calcium hardness. Without testing your spa water, you won’t be able to accurately fix the root of the problem. So, grab your test kit or test strips and let’s get started!

Referencing your water test results, use spa balancing chemicals to correctly balance your water. Always read all labels and instructions, and check with your hot tub manufacturer before applying chemicals.

pH: 7.2-7.6 ppm. Use pH increaser or decreaser.

Total alkalinity: 80-120 ppm. Use alkalinity increaser or decreaser. Some pH adjusters will also alter the alkalinity reading.

Calcium hardness: 200-400 ppm. Most spas are fine with calcium hardness levels up to 400pm. If it’s low, add a calcium booster. If it’s too high, and you’ll be refilling from a hard water source (such as a well), drain the spa and refill with the help of a pre-filter to remove excess calcium.

Sanitation: Keep sanitizer levels between 1.5-3 ppm for chlorine and 3-5 ppm for bromine.


Incorporate brushing to loosen up and remove some of the scale on the surface of the hot tub. If you have an acrylic hot tub, you’ll need to be more cautious and scrub gently to avoid damaging the finish. Look for brushes that are safe for spas and hot tubs. When in doubt, test a small, inconspicuous area first.


If the scaling is severe, you will need to drain your hot tub. If you haven’t emptied your hot tub in 2-4 months, take the time to do so now. Draining your hot tub correctly will remove all the existing bacteria and dissolved solids built up over time. If you’ve never drained your hot tub before, don’t worry – we’ve got an article for that!


Leisure Time Defender Spa Scale Preventer

Fill your hot tub and add a scale prevention product. The Leisure Time Defender Spa Scale Preventer is great for removing stains caused by calcium and utilizes a second-generation blend of organic polymers to actively prevent future scale and stains. If you have hard water, you can also try to soften it by using a water softener.

By regularly maintaining your hot tub and keeping the water properly balanced, you will be able say “GOODBYE” to hot tub scale! For best results, remember to test your water 2-3 times a week and clean the spa filter on a regular basis.

How to Drain a Hot Tub…Quickly!


Knowing how to drain a hot tub is one thing. Knowing how to drain a hot tub quickly is another. It can save so much time in hot tub maintenance! The average hot tub should be drained every 3-4 months, depending on frequency of use, water quality and other factors. Using the drain plug alone or siphoning water through a garden hose can take hours and hours to complete. In this blog, we’ll introduce you to some quicker methods for draining a spa or hot tub in minutes.


First Things First

Before getting started, check local ordinances to make sure you are able to legally drain the spa. Can you drain it into the yard? Can the water drain into the street? Is there a sewer hookup nearby? Perhaps there’s a draught in the area, and water conservation measures are in effect. Knowing this info before getting started will save you from headaches later on.

jet clean hot tub cleanerchange or clean the hot tub filterA couple times a year (or more), it’s a good idea to purge the plumbing in your hot tub. Bacteria, body oils and other organic matter form layers of nasty biofilm, which can lurk in the pipes and cause skin irritation or illness. Using a cleansing product like Jet Clean breaks down the biofilm so it can be removed while draining. Just add the chemical, turn on the jets, and let it circulate for 20-60 minutes, following label instructions on time and dosing. Don’t fret if brownish, foamy goop comes to the surface – this means the cleaner is working!

After the lines have been purged, turn off all hot tub functions and flip the circuit breaker; you don’t want the pump or heater to come on while the water level is low. Remove the filter for cleaning, and assemble your supplies…it’s time to drain the hot tub!

Draining the Hot Tub

There are couple of easy ways to quickly drain a hot tub. Either method can be used in addition to the drain plug or combined with other draining methods for maximum efficiency.

use a submersible pump to drain a hot tub

Submersible Pump

The fastest way to drain a hot tub is to use a submersible pump. Personally, I like using the AquaPro APC3000 submersible pump. This 1/3 HP pump can be used with a ¾” garden hose or a 1¾“ sump pump discharge hose to remove up to 30 gallons per minute (1,800 gallons per hour). The math is pretty simple – a 450 gallon spa can be emptied in as little as 15 minutes flat. Yes, you read that correctly!

The AquaPro is nice, because it includes a sensor to automatically turn off once the spa has been emptied. Since you won’t have to babysit the pump, use this time to clean the spa filter or get started on the spa cover. There should only be a little bit of water left in the bottom, which can be removed manually or with a wet/dry vac.

Shop Vac Siphon

wet/dry shop vacuumAnother fast method for draining a hot tub is using a wet/dry vacuum to get a siphon started. Drop one end of a long vacuum hose into the spa, and connect the other end to the wet/dry vacuum. Turn it on for a few seconds – just long enough to let the hose prime and get the flow moving. Turn off the vacuum, and quickly disconnect the hose so the water can flow out onto the ground.

Though not quite as fast as using a submersible pump, this method can still empty out an average-sized hot tub in a matter of minutes. The large hose diameter makes it much more efficient than a garden hose siphon. The nice thing about using the vacuum hose is that while water is being siphoned out of the spa, you can use the “wand” end to remove dirt and debris from the floor and seats. Once the water level is low enough that the siphon isn’t pulling water anymore, hook the hose back up to the wet/dry vacuum to remove the last puddles of water from the tub.

Final Tips

hot to drain a hot tubIf you’re going to be leaving the spa empty for a while, don’t forget to remove water from the lines, too. A new layer of biofilm can build up quickly if the water is allowed to stay in the pipes, and you’ll be right back at square one when you refill! This can be done with a wet/dry vacuum to blow and/or suck the water out. Or, if your spa has one, briefly turn on the air blower, making sure all jets are open first. Remember to turn the power back off once you’re done with the air blower.

Thoroughly dry the tub with a soft towel. Next, use a spa cleaning chemical to remove tough scum and protect the tub surface. Finish cleaning (or replace) the filter cartridge, clean and condition the cover, and hose off the spa cabinet if it’s looking dirty. If you’re not refilling the hot tub right away, allow the filter to dry completely, and store it indoors.


Of course, you can always just use the bottom drain on the hot tub and wait for several hours. Then again, the faster the hot tub is drained and cleaned, the sooner you can get back to using it! Hot Tub Works has everything needed to clean and maintain your freshly drained spa, from cleaning chemicals and replacement filters, to water balancing chemicals and test strips. Have questions? Give us a call!

How to Keep a Hot Tub Clean While on Vacation


how to maintain a hot tub while on vacation

If you’ve owned a hot tub for any length of time, you know that it requires daily maintenance to keep the water clean and sanitary. But what do you do when you aren’t home to clean the spa for a few days or weeks? How do you keep the hot tub clean while you’re on vacation? Not to worry – we’ve got all your answers right here!


First Things First…

No matter how long you’ll be away from home, what the outdoor weather is like, or what time of sanitizer you use for your hot tub, some procedures will stay the same across the board for vacation-proofing your hot tub:

  • Test and balance the water.
    • Test the alkalinity and calcium hardness of your spa water, and balance it accordingly.
  • Clean or replace the filter cartridge.
    • change or clean the hot tub filterThis is one of the most important things to do before you go on vacation. Clean or replace the filter cartridge before you leave.
    • If you leave for a week or two with a dirty filter, you’re going to have dirty water to contend with when you get home.
  • Sanitize the water.
    • Make sure there’s enough sanitizer to get your spa through vacation, and lower the output levels as needed.
    • Since there will be no people in the hot tub while you’re gone, the sanitizer won’t be used up as quickly.
    • Before you leave, treat the water with spa shock, and run the pump for about 30 minutes to ensure the water has been well circulated.
  • Secure the spa.
    • No matter how long you’ll be away, make sure to keep your hot tub cover or entrance(s) locked down.
    • If an uninvited guest goes for a dip in your spa and something bad happens, you may be held liable. Keeping the cover firmly closed will also keep dirt out and heat in.

Now that the basics are out of the way, let’s look out how this maintenance plan will change depending on a number of different factors.


Planning According to Duration

Short Vacation

If you’re only leaving town for a couple of days, there’s no need to do much else besides the basic instructions listed above. Enjoy your trip, knowing that when you return home the hot tub will be in the same pristine condition you left it in!

hot tub vacation

Long Vacation

Here, it mostly depends on how long you will be gone. A week? Two weeks? A month or more? For 1-2 week vacations, preparation work is extremely important. If you have a friend or neighbor who can drop in a couple times to monitor water quality and add more sanitizer, this will make it easier to keep the water clean and clear while you’re gone. As incentive for adding sanitizer for you, allow them to use the hot tub while you’re gone! To save on heating expenses, you can also decrease the temperature by 10 degrees.

On the other hand, if you’re going to be gone for quite a while, or if it’s been a few months since the spa was last drained and refilled, you may be ahead to just clean and drain your spa before you leave. Be sure to use a product like Jet Clean, which will clear the lines of biofilm and other hidden gunk. Drain the tub, and turn on a blower or low pressure air compressor to completely clear the water out of the lines. This will prevent freezing damage or yucky bio-growth taking over the plumbing. Once the tub is fully drained, thoroughly clean and dry the tub with a soft towel or sponge. Leave all drain plugs off to release any remaining water in the system, and put the spa cover back on to keep the tub clean and out of direct sunlight. It will be ready for a fresh refill when you return!

*Please note that wooden hot tubs cannot be drained for extended periods.


Planning According to Weather

Warm Weather

warm weatherIf weather conditions are pretty warm in your area, the main thing you’ll need to worry about while you’re gone is algae growth. Keeping sanitizer levels up is your best defense against an algae outbreak, and shocking the spa before you go will certainly help. If needed, use a spa algaecide to treat and prevent algae. It’s OK to turn off the pump and heater while you’re out of town if there’s no risk of the water freezing.

Cold Weather

cold weatherIf temperatures are consistently below freezing, you’ll need to ensure the hot tub and plumbing will stay thawed while you’re away. As long as the spa is properly heated, it’s alright to drop the water temperature by 10 degrees to save on heating costs. Leave the pump and heater on to keep the water warm and circulating. If you have freeze protection for your hot tub, it will automatically turn on the circulation pump when temperatures approach freezing.


Planning According to Sanitizer Type

Bromine or Chlorine Sanitizer

Bromine is the most popular sanitization chemical for hot tubs and spas, and it’s actually pretty easy to manage while you’re out of town. Just load up a bromine floater with 1” bromine tablets, and turn the output setting down to the lowest setting to keep the chemical flow to a bromine and chlorine

For chlorine, just remember to NEVER put 1” tri-chlor (stabilized pool chlorine) tabs into a spa floater. Tri-chlor tablets are intended for use in pools only, but di-chlor granular chlorine can be safely added to spas. If you rely solely on chlorine granules for sanitizing the water, you may need to have a friend or neighbor help out until you get back home. On the other hand, if you have a chlorine hot tub, it’s likely that you also supplement the chlorine with a mineral sanitizer or an ozone system. If that’s the case, keep reading to learn more!

salt chlorine generator for spas and hot tubs

Salt Chlorine Generator

If you have a salt water hot tub, you won’t have to worry too much while on vacation! Just make sure salt levels are sufficient for chlorine generation, and shock the water before you go. The chlorine will not be used up as quickly while the spa is closed, so the generator will not be working as hard to maintain free chlorine levels.

Mineral Sanitizer

mineral floaterMineral sanitizers are valuable in that they can supplement most other sanitizer systems – bromine, chlorine and ozone, included. Some mineral sanitizers are packaged as floaters and paired with bromine or chlorine, while others can be dropped directly into your spa filter. Aside from the standard pre-vacation spa maintenance, you’ll just need to make sure that your mineral cartridges are good to go. Most mineral cartridges last about 4 months, so if needed, just replace them before you leave.


spa ozone generator

Just like a salt chlorinator, an ozone generator won’t require much extra effort before you close up the hot tub. Just ensure everything is working properly and the water is properly balanced and sanitized before you go. You won’t have to worry about overdosing the tub on ozone, so you don’t even need to adjust the timer if you don’t want to.


With a little extra planning and preparation, your hot tub will be ready to use in no time once you return. Don’t let routine hot tub maintenance keep you from enjoying the vacation you deserve!


Hot Tub Water: Test Like a Boss!


Manage hot tub water balance with a proper test kit.

Testing hot tub water regularly is important to avoid peaks and valleys of sanitation and water balance. Testing every day is not necessary unless your spa is used on a daily basis. Instead, test the water 2-3 times per week – more often if the spa is used frequently.

When you are only working with 300-500 gallons of water, it’s crucial to be accurate. Otherwise, it’s easy to underdose or overdose your hot tub when adding chemicals. Here, we’ll show you the good, the better, and the best of the business when it comes to testing your spa water.


spa test strips

GOOD Hot Tub Water Test

Spa test strips are made to work with hot water, and are “calibrated” especially for use with spas. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and several options are available depending on your needs. You can use test strips that for a single aspect like bromine levels, or you can use a multi-test strip that looks at six (or more) components of your spa water.

Test strips are both useful and economical, and many people use them to keep their hot tub water balanced. However, the wide range of results and hard-to-determine color matching scale can make them less accurate and less reliable when compared to other types of hot tub water tests.


BETTER Hot Tub Water Test

AquaChek TruTest Digital Pool Tester

A better way to test spa water is to not abandon test strips, but to simply remove human error from the equation. The AquaChek TruTest Spa digital test strip reader analyzes the test strip from 16 million colors, which improves accuracy of test strip use immensely.

Replacement TruTest strips cost as much (or less) than other multi-test strips, so it doesn’t take much to keep a constant supply handy. The AquaChek digital reader measures free and total chlorine or bromine, pH and total alkalinity with excellent precision in just seconds.


BEST Hot Tub Water Test

Taylor Test Kit

The best way to test hot tub or spa water is to use a “liquid drop style” titration test kit. Titration test kits are different, and here’s why. First, you take a water sample in a test vial and add the reagent. Next, you’ll add an indicator solution drop by drop, counting the drops until you achieve a solid color change (from red to blue for example). Multiply the number of drops x 10, and you have your calcium and alkalinity reading, accurate to within 5 ppm. When testing for sanitizer levels, accuracy falls within 0.5 ppm.


Yes it takes longer to do a titration test, but not much longer. You can do a full battery of tests (bromine, pH, alkalinity and hardness) in less than 5 minutes. If your balance is off, the charts in the booklet will tell you exactly how much adjustment chemical to add. There are more options available for the type of test you’d like to perform on your hot tub, but the more inclusive tests usually come with a higher price tag.


When choosing a hot tub water test, it really comes down to what is most important to you. If you’re looking for unparalleled accuracy, a titration kit or digital strip reader are the both a good way to go. If you check the water often and don’t want to spend a lot of money on testing supplies, regular test strips are a solid option. The digital test strip readers have become quite popular in recent years because they offer a good balance between test strips and titration kits when it comes to cost, accuracy and ease of use.